Non-AIDS defining malignancies among HIV-infected patients
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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
HIV Treatment Centre, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Africa Centre for Excellence in Phytomedicine Research and Development (ACEPRD), University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Submission date: 2020-11-12
Final revision date: 2021-01-12
Acceptance date: 2021-03-02
Publication date: 2021-09-30
HIV & AIDS Review 2021;20(3):151-157
Malignancies are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-
infected patients. With the introduction of an effective combination of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has been changed from being a death sentence to a chronic condition. There is renewed clinical interest in the associated morbidities of non-communicable diseases, and most importantly cancers, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, due to prolonged survival on antiretrovirals. Available evidence suggests that there is an increasing frequency of cancers associated with bacterial and viral infections among the HIV-infected population. There is also a concern about the etiology of emergence of cancers, risk factors, and viral infections in HIV-infected individuals. The challenge is for the caregivers to develop and implement effective means to screen, treat, and prevent non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) in the HIV-infected patients. There is a need for provision of hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus vaccines for those who are uninfected and the eligible population. Emphasis should be on these non-AIDS defining cancers during health education, in order to create awareness of the morbidity that may encourage screening uptake, thus resulting in healthy living and reduced mortality rates. This brief review aimed to bring to fore the account of NADCs, risk factors, the role of the microbiota, diagnostic methods, and the need for urgent screening and prevention among people living with HIV/AIDS.
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