HIV–TB co-infection and associated risk factors among HIV positive patients at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Ogun State, South-West Nigeria
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Online publication date: 2016-06-27
HIV & AIDS Review 2016;15(2):69-72
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of active Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection in a cohort of HIV patients enrolled in a University Teaching Hospital in Ogun state, Nigeria.

Nigeria ranks the highest tuberculosis-burdened country in Africa. More worrisome is the grim prediction burden of over four million cases of tuberculosis in Nigeria of which one million HIV/TB co-infections are anticipated between 2015 and 2020.

Materials and methods
This is a retrospective assessment of 1992 HIV patients, of which 657 (33%) were males and 1335 (67%) were females. All patients were enrolled between 2008 and 2011 at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital in Ogun State. The main outcome was the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were utilized in data analysis.

Study findings showed that 3.5% (95% CI: 2.7% – 4.4%) of HIV patients had active tuberculosis within the study period. In addition, divorced patients had significantly four times greater odds of tuberculosis relative to single patients (OR: 4.09; 95% CI: 1.20–14.00). Highest rate of tuberculosis was observed in 2008 (9.7%) with a progressive decline to zero case of co-infection in 2011.

Study findings provide evidence of a decline in TB burden over time. However, given the retrospective nature of this study, there is a dire need for a more robust and expanded investigation into the true nature of active TB epidemiology in south-western Nigeria, in order to further our insight and target intervention delivery.
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